In , the Sixteenth Council of Toledo condemned Sisebert , Julian's successor as bishop of Toledo, for having rebelled against King Egica in alliance with Liuvigoto, the widow of king Ervig. Whether or not Sisebert's and Suniefred's rebellions were the same or separate is unknown. Suniefred is known only from having minted coins in Toledo during what should have been Egica's reign.
The Eighteenth Council of Toledo, the last one, took place shortly after Egica's death around or By the end of the seventh century the bishop of Toledo was the leader of the Spanish bishops, a situation unusual in Europe: Not even the pope could count on such support from neighbouring metropolitans. When Wittiza died around , Ruderic became Visigothic king in Toledo, but the kingdom was split, as a rival king Achila ruled Tarraconensis and Narbonensis.
He was defeated and killed in battle, apparently after being betrayed by Visigothic nobles who wished to replace him as king and did not consider the Arabs and Berbers a serious threat. The commander of the invading forces was Tariq bin Ziyad , a Luwata Berber freedman in the service of governor Musa.
Since the king was chosen in or around Toledo, by nobles based in Toledo, and had to be anointed king by the bishop of Toledo in a church in Toledo, when Tariq captured Toledo and executed the Visigothic nobles, having already killed the king, there was no way for the Visigoths to select a legitimate king. Soon after the conquest, Musa and Tariq returned to Damascus. The Arab center of administration was placed first in Seville, then moved to Cordoba.
With most of the rest of the Iberian peninsula, Toledo was ruled from Cordoba by the governor of Al-Andalus , under the ultimate notional command of the Umayyad Caliph in Damascus. Arab conquerors had often replaced former capital cities with new ones to mark the change in political power, and they did so here: They took control of the north and marched south, laying siege to Toledo. After a siege of one month the Berber troops were defeated outside Toledo by troops sent from Cordoba by the governor Abd al-Malik ibn Katan and commanded by the governor's son.
The Omeyyad dynasty in Damascus collapsed and Yusuf ruled independently with the support of his Syrian Arab forces. There is evidence that Toledo retained its importance as a literary and ecclesiastical center into the middle s, in the Chronicle of , the life of Saint Ildefonsus by Cixila , and ecclesiastical letters sent from Toledo.
In the first episode the covering of the tomb of Saint Leocadia levitated while Ildefonsus was saying mass, with king Reccesuinth present. In the second episode Mary appears to Ildefonsus and Reccesuinth. These episodes are said to have resulted from Ildefonsus' devotion to Saint Leocadia , patroness saint of Toledo. An archdeacon in Toledo called Evantius, who was active around and died in , wrote a letter to address the existence of judaizing tendencies among the Christians of Zaragoza, specifically the belief that there are unclean forms of meat and the literal interpretation of Deuteronomic law.
There is a strong possibility that the Chronicle of was written in Toledo though scholars have also proposed Cordoba and Guadix based on the information available to the chronicler. In Abd ar-Rahman , a descendant of the fallen Omeyyad caliphs, came to Al-Andalus and initiated a revolt against Yusuf. He defeated Yusuf and forced him to reside in Cordoba, but Yusuf broke the agreement and raised a Berber army to fight Abd ar-Rahman.
Yusuf attempted to march on Seville, but was defeated and instead attempted to reach his cousin in Toledo. He was either killed on his way to Toledo, or he reached Toledo and held out there for as many as two or three years before being betrayed and killed by his own people. Whether or not Yusuf himself held out in Toledo, Hisham ibn Urwa did hold power in Toledo for several years, resisting the authority of Abd ar-Rahman.
In Hisham is reported as again being in rebellion in Toledo against Abd ar-Rahman. Abd ar-Rahman failed to take Toledo by force and instead signed a treaty allowing Hisham to remain in control of Toledo, but giving one of his sons as hostage to Abd ar-Rahman. Hisham continued to defy Abd ar-Rahman, who had Hisham's son executed and the head catapulted over the city walls into Toledo. Abd ar-Rahman attacked Toledo in , winning only when some of Hisham's own people betrayed him and turned him over to Abd ar-Rahman and his freedman Badr.
Under the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba , Toledo was the centre of numerous insurrections dating from to However, Abd ar-Rahman designated as his successor a younger son, Hisham. On Hisham's accession to the Emirate in , Sulayman refused to make the oath of allegiance at the mosque, as succession custom would have dictated, and thus declared himself in rebellion. He was joined in Toledo by his brother Abdallah.
Hisham laid siege to Toledo. While Abdallah held Toledo against Hisham, Sulayman escaped and attempted to find support elsewhere, but was unsuccessful. In , Abdallah submitted and Hisham took control of Toledo. The following year, Sulayman gave up the fight and went into exile. After Al-Hakam's accession and departure, a poet resident in Toledo named Girbib ibn-Abdallah wrote verses against the Omeyyads, helping to inspire a revolt in Toledo against the new emir in Chroniclers disagree as to the leader of this revolt, though Ibn Hayyan states that it was led by Ibn Hamir.
Al-Hakam sent Amrus ibn Yusuf to fight the rebellion. Amrus took control of the Berber troops in Talavera. From there, Amrus negotiated with a faction inside Toledo called the Banu Mahsa, promising to make them governors if they would betray Ibn Hamir. Amrus now persuaded the remaining factions in Toledo to submit to him.
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Once he entered Toledo, he invited the leaders to a celebratory feast. As they entered Amrus' fortress, the guests were beheaded one by one and their bodies thrown in a specially dug ditch. The massacre was thus called "The Day of the Ditch". Amrus' soldiers killed about people that day.
Amrus was governor of Toledo until By the end of the s, the Omeyyads had created three frontier districts stretching out from the southern core of their Iberian territories. Toledo now engaged in an inter-city feud with the nearby city of Calatrava la Vieja. Toledan soldiers attacked Calatrava, destroyed the walls, and massacred or expelled many inhabitants of Calatrava in Soldiers from Cordoba came to restore the walls and protect Calatrava from Toledo.
The new emir, Muhammad I , sent a second army to attack the Toledans, but was defeated. The Toledans and Asturians were defeated at the Battle of Guadacelete, with sources claiming Toledan and Asturian soldiers were killed and their heads sent back to Cordoba for display throughout Al-Andalus.
Despite this defeat, Toledo did not surrender to Cordoba. The Omeyyads reinforced nearby fortresses with cavalry forces to try to contain the Toledans. Toledans attacked Talavera in , but were again defeated. In emir Muhammad I personally led an expedition against Toledo and destroyed a bridge, but was unable to take the city.
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In , Muhammad I negotiated a truce with Toledo. Toledo became virtually independent for twenty years, though locked in conflict with neighboring cities.
Muhammad I recovered control of Toledo in , when he successfully besieged the city and forced it to submit. The Banu Qasi gained nominal control of the city until and in Abd-ar-Rahman III captured the city following an extensive siege. He had installed his son Lupus Lubb as governor of Toledo. However, Arabic sources do not confirm these campaigns, instead stating that Musa ibn Musa was killed in a failed attack on Guadalajara, and that Andalusi forces repeatedly defeated Asturian forces in the area of Alava from to By the s the Omeyyads had regained control over Toledo.
In Al-Mundhir led an expedition against Asturias, of which one of the main components was a force from Toledo. One source portrays this raid as an attack by the 'King of Toledo', but other sources portray it as an Omeyyad raid involving substantial Toledan forces. Spanish chronicles state that twelve to thirteen thousand in the Toledo army were killed in the battle. Collins states that these figures are "totally unreliable" but demonstrate that Asturian chroniclers thought of this as an important and decisive battle.
The combination of Wadih's army and the Catalans defeated the Berbers in a battle outside Cordoba in After the fall of the Umayyad caliphate in the early 11th century, Toledo became an independent taifa kingdom. The population of Toledo at this time was about 28 thousand, including a Jewish population estimated at 4 thousand. North, the border was the Sierra de Guadarrama.
Northeast, Toledo lands stretched past Guadalajara to Medinaceli. South were the borders with Badajoz around the Mountains of Toledo. He conquered Talamanca de Jarama and besieged Alcala de Henares. To secure Fernando's withdrawal, king al-Mamun of Toledo agreed to pay an annual tribute, or parias , to Fernando. Toledo controlled the taifa of Valencia until al-Mamun's death in After the death of Fernando I in , the kingdom of Leon and Castilla was divided in three: Alfonso VI was allowed to go into exile with al-Mamun in Toledo.
Some sources state that al-Mamun forced Alfonso to swear support for al-Mamun and his heirs before allowing him to leave. Alfonso received troops from al-Mamun in addition to the parias payment, facilitating his military campaigns. The campaign was successful, and Granada was forced to begin parias payments to Alfonso VI. After this, al-Mamun proceeded to attack Cordoba, which was then under the control of his enemy al-Mutamid , taifa king of Sevilla. He conquered Cordoba in January The parias of Toledo to Alfonso VI in the s amounted to approximately 12 thousand gold dinars.
This money contributed strongly to Alfonso VI's ability to project military strength throughout the Iberian peninsula. In , al-Mamun of Toledo was killed in the city of Cordoba, which he had conquered only the year before.
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The taifa king of Sevilla took the opportunity to reconquer Cordoba and seize other territory on the borderlands between the taifas of Sevilla and Toledo. Al-Mamun was succeeded by his son, al-Qadir, the last taifa king of Toledo. Possibly keeping an earlier promise to al-Mamun, Alfonso VI at first supported the succession of al-Qadir.
The taifa of Valencia, which had been conquered by al-Mamun, revolted against al-Qadir and ceased parias payments to Toledo. Taking advantage of al-Qadir's weakness, al-Mutamid of Sevilla took lands in La Mancha from the taifa of Toledo, and from there conquered the taifas of Valencia and Denia in After this, al-Qadir lost popularity in Toledo.